Anne-Marie moved back to her parents' house in Meudonwhere she raised Sartre with help from her father Charles Schweitzer, a teacher of German who taught Sartre mathematics and introduced him to classical literature at a very early age. An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness. Role and Nature"] was supervised by Henri Delacroix.
Philosophical Development Sartre was born in Paris where he spent most of his life. After a traditional philosophical education in prestigious Parisian schools that introduced him to the history of Western philosophy with a bias toward Cartesianism and neoKantianism, not to mention a strong strain of Bergsonism, Sartre succeeded his former school friend, Raymond Aron, at the French Institute in Berlin — where he read the leading phenomenologists of the day, Husserl, Heidegger and Scheler.
What he read of Heidegger at that time is unclear, but he deals with the influential German ontologist explicitly after his return and especially in his masterwork, Being and Nothingness This becomes apparent in the last phase of his work. Sartre had long been fascinated with the French novelist Gustave Flaubert.
In this work, Sartre joins his Existentialist vocabulary of the s and early s with his Marxian lexicon of the late s and s to ask what we can know about a man in the present state of our knowledge.
These features doubtless contributed to his being awarded the Nobel prize for literature, which he characteristically refused along with its substantial cash grant lest John paul satre essay acceptance be read as approval of the bourgeois values that the honor seemed to emblemize.
In his last years, Sartre, who had lost the use of one eye in childhood, became almost totally blind. As the headline of one Parisian newspaper lamented: Ontology Like Husserl and Heidegger, Sartre distinguished ontology from metaphysics and favored the former.
In his case, ontology is primarily descriptive and classificatory, whereas metaphysics purports to be causally explanatory, offering accounts about the ultimate origins and ends of individuals and of the universe as a whole. Unlike Heidegger, however, Sartre does not try to combat metaphysics as a deleterious undertaking.
He simply notes in a Kantian manner that it raises questions we cannot answer. It begins by analyzing two distinct and irreducible categories or kinds of being: Being-in-itself and being-for-itself have mutually exclusive characteristics and yet we human reality are entities that combine both, which is the ontological root of our ambiguity.
The in-itself is solid, self-identical, passive and inert. One can see why Sartre is often described as a Cartesian dualist but this is imprecise. The principle of identity holds only for being-in-itself. The for-itself is an exception to this rule.
The category or ontological principle of the for-others comes into play as soon as the other subject or Other appears on the scene.
The Other cannot be deduced from the two previous principles but must be encountered. Praxis is dialectical in the Hegelian sense that it surpasses and subsumes its other, the practico-inert.
Thus speech acts would be examples of praxis but language would be practico-inert; social institutions are practico-inert but the actions they both foster and limit are praxes.
The Other in Being and Nothingness alienates or objectifies us in this work Sartre seems to use these terms equivalently and the third party is simply this Other writ large. The concepts of praxis, practico-inert and mediating third form the basis of a social ontology that merits closer attention than the prolix Critique encourages.
His early studies of emotive and imaging consciousness in the late s press the Husserlian principle of intentionality farther than their author seemed willing to go.
For example, in The Psychology of ImaginationSartre argues that Husserl remains captive to the idealist principle of immanence the object of consciousness lies within consciousnessdespite his stated goal of combating idealism, when he seems to consider images as miniatures of the perceptual object reproduced or retained in the mind.
Still Husserl continued to appeal to mental images in his account of imaging consciousness while eventually avoiding them in analyzing the imagination. If emotion is a joke, he warns, it is a joke we believe in.
These are all spontaneous, prereflective relations.Essays and criticism on Jean-Paul Sartre - Critical Essays. - Existentialism Comparison Essay Existentialism is a philosophy, which revolves around the beliefs humans create themselves.
Jean-Paul Satre’s version of Hell in No Exit is full of drama, irony and humor. [tags: Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism, No Exit] - John Paul Sartre John Paul Sartre is known as one of the most influential.
Jean Paul Sartre: Existentialism.
The philosophical career of Jean Paul Sartre () focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as kaja-net.com's early works are characterized by a development of classic phenomenology, but his reflection diverges from Husserl’s on methodology, the conception of the self, and an interest in ethics.
John-Paul Satre Essay by EssaySwap Contributor, High School, 12th grade, February download word file, 6 pages download word file, 6 pages 0 votes. A splendid introduction to the philosophy of existentialism. In Essays in Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre (), the leading French exponent of existential philosophy, wrote a book that open many doors to the mind.
Sartre challenged his readers to think beyond the meaning of 4/5. The Letters of Jean-Paul Sartre to Simone de Beauvoir, –, ed.. Simone de Beauvoir, tr.
and intro. Simone de Beauvoir, tr. and intro. Lee Fahnestock and Norman MacAfee.