German History More than 2, years ago a tall and fair-haired people roamed Europe.
Dominant themes[ edit ] Animated map of French territory in continental Europe over time. After centuries of warfare and diplomacy, France has the largest territory of any nation in Western Europe.
In the last few centuries, French strategic thinking has sometimes been driven by the need to attain or preserve the so-called "natural frontiers," which are the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, and the Rhine River to the east. Warfare with other European powers was not always determined by these considerations, and often rulers of France extended their continental authority far beyond these barriers, most notably under Charlemagne, Louis XIV, and Napoleon.
Anglo-French rivalry, for prestige in Europe and around the world, continued for centuries, while the more recent Franco-German rivalry required two world wars to stabilize.
Starting in the early 16th century, much of France's military efforts were dedicated to securing its overseas possessions and putting down dissent among both French colonists and native populations. French troops were spread all across its empire, primarily to deal with the local population.
The French colonial empire ultimately disintegrated after the failed attempt to subdue Algerian nationalists in the late s, a failure that led to the collapse of the Fourth Republic. France has also been instrumental in attempting to unite the armed forces of Europe for their own defense in order to both balance the power of Russia and to lessen European military dependence on the United States.
For example, France withdrew from NATO in over complaints that its role in the organization was being subordinated to the demands of the United States. Unencumbered by continental wars or intricate alliances, France now deploys its military forces as part of international peacekeeping operations, security enforcers in former colonies, or maintains them combat ready and mobilized to respond to threats from rogue states.
France is a nuclear power with the largest nuclear arsenal in Europe, and its nuclear capabilities, just like its conventional forces, have been restructured to rapidly deal with emerging threats. The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened and encouraged several subdued Italian tribes to rebel.
One by one, over the course of the next 50 years, these tribes were defeated and brought back under Roman dominion.
Meanwhile, the Gauls would continue to harass the region until BC, when they entered into a formal treaty with Rome.
But Romans and Gauls would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several centuries and the Gauls would remain a threat in Italia.
A century ago, an assassin, a Serbian nationalist, killed the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary as he visited Sarajevo. This act was the catalyst for a massive conflict that lasted four years. Introduction to the First World War. World War 1 is a military conflict that began on 28 July and lasted until 11 November Also called the Great War, it . The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was about 40 million: estimates range from 15 to 19 million deaths and about 23 million wounded military personnel, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.. The total number of deaths includes from 9 to 11 million military kaja-net.com civilian death toll was about .
Initially Caesar met with little Gallic resistance: The following year he conquered the Belgian Gauls after claiming that they were conspiring against Rome. The string of victories continued in a naval triumph against the Veneti in 56 BC. In 53 BC, a united Gallic resistance movement under Vercingetorix emerged for the first time.
Caesar laid siege to the fortified city of Avaricum Bourges and broke through the defenses after 25 days, with only out of the 40, inhabitants managing to escape. The townspeople were starved into submission and Caesar's unique defensive earthworks, protruding towards the city and away from it in order to stop a massive Gallic relief force,  eventually forced Vercingetorix to surrender.
The Gallic Wars were over. Gallo-Roman culture settled over the region in the next few centuries, but as Roman power weakened in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, a Germanic tribethe Franksoverran large areas that today form modern France.
Under King Clovis I in the late 5th and early 6th centuries, Frankish dominions quadrupled as they managed to defeat successive opponents for control of Gaul. In he overcame the Alamanni at the Battle of Tolbiac.
Following Clovis, territorial divisions in the Frankish domain sparked intense rivalry between the western part of the kingdom, Neustriaand the eastern part, Austrasia.World War I was a major conflict fought in Europe and around the world between July 28, and November 11, Nations from across all non-polar continents were involved, although Russia, Britain, France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary dominated.
French defeats in the early stages of World War II, however, forced the British to destroy the French navy at Mers-el-Kebir in order to prevent its fall to the Germans. Currently, French naval doctrine calls for two aircraft carriers, but the French currently only have one, the Charles de Gaulle, due to restructuring.
The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was about 40 million: estimates range from 15 to 19 million deaths and about 23 million wounded military personnel, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history..
The total number of deaths includes from 9 to 11 million military kaja-net.com civilian death toll was about . Introduction. World War II was the mightiest struggle humankind has ever seen. It killed more people, cost more money, damaged more property, affected more people, and caused more far-reaching changes in nearly every country than any other war in history.
Fort Bragg was the only World War I era camp in North Carolina to remain in operation after the war and its presence redefined the small port town of Fayetteville, as catering to the needs of the soldiers became an important part of the local economy. The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I.
They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.