There are both distal and proximate causes which can be traced in the historical factors affecting globalization. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century. Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s.
The concept of corporate social responsibility means that organizations have moral, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities in addition to their responsibilities to earn a fair return for investors and comply with the law.
A traditional view of the corporation suggests that its primary, if not sole, responsibility is to its owners, or stockholders.
However, CSR requires organizations to adopt a broader view of its responsibilities that includes not only stockholders, but many other constituencies as well, including employees, suppliers, customers, the local community, local, state, and federal governments, environmental groups, and other special interest groups.
Collectively, the various groups affected by the actions of an organization are called "stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility is related to, but not identical with, business ethics.
While CSR encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities of organizations, business ethics usually focuses on the moral judgments and behavior of individuals and groups within organizations.
Thus, the study of business ethics may be regarded as a component of the larger study of corporate social responsibility.
Carroll and Buchholtz's four-part definition of CSR makes explicit the multi-faceted nature of social responsibility. The economic responsibilities cited in the definition refer to society's expectation that organizations will produce good and services that are needed and desired by customers and sell those goods and services at a reasonable price.
Organizations are expected to be efficient, profitable, and to keep shareholder interests in mind. The legal responsibilities relate to the expectation that organizations will comply with the laws set down by society to govern competition in the marketplace.
Organizations have thousands of legal responsibilities governing almost every aspect of their operations, including consumer and product laws, environmental laws, and employment laws. The ethical responsibilities concern societal expectations that go beyond the law, such as the expectation that organizations will conduct their affairs in a fair and just way.
This means that organizations are expected to do more than just comply with the law, but also make proactive efforts to anticipate and meet the norms of society even if those norms are not formally enacted in law. Finally, the discretionary responsibilities of corporations refer to society's expectation that organizations be good citizens.
This may involve such things as philanthropic support of programs benefiting a community or the nation.
It may also involve donating employee expertise and time to worthy causes. The concept of CSR is a relatively new one—the phrase has only been in wide use since the s. But, while the economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary expectations placed on organizations may differ, it is probably accurate to say that all societies at all points in time have had some degree of expectation that organizations would act responsibly, by some definition.
In the eighteenth century the great economist and philosopher Adam Smith expressed the traditional or classical economic model of business. In essence, this model suggested that the needs and desires of society could best be met by the unfettered interaction of individuals and organizations in the marketplace.
By acting in a self-interested manner, individuals would produce and deliver the goods and services that would earn them a profit, but also meet the needs of others. The viewpoint expressed by Adam Smith over years ago still forms the basis for free-market economies in the twenty-first century.kaja-net.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of kaja-net.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
Students can save on their education by taking the kaja-net.com online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional course. While corporate social responsibility may be defined and implemented differently for various organizations and businesses, this paper considers three broad categories: local philanthropy and service, environmental sustainability, geopolitical advocacy.
When Good Companies Do Bad Things: Responsibility and Risk in an Age of Globalization [Peter Schwartz, Blair Gibb] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A good reputation is certainly an asset for any company, but to a public that has raised its expectations of business' responsibility to society.
The Existence of Social Issue in - Throughout the years of , many countries faced social unjust through political and economic issues that . Business Ethics. This page provides a guide to the best sites on business ethics, ethics management, ethical business, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Chapter 1 Introduction. Corporate Social Responsibility is a rapidly developing, key business issue. It is a concept that has attracted worldwide attention.